Much is said these days about the possible arrival of a vaccine that prevents the effects of Covid-19 in a preventive way, but first of all, what is a vaccine?, according to the World Health Organization “Vaccine is understood to be any preparation intended to generate immunity against a disease by stimulating the production of antibodies. It can be, for example, a suspension of dead or attenuated microorganisms, or products or derivatives of microorganisms. The most common method of administering vaccines is by injection, although some are administered with a nasal or oral spray.”
Since the start of the pandemic, many countries have been carrying out clinical trials to develop a vaccine against Covid-19. In this post, we will explain in a simple way what is the level of effectiveness of each one so far and what has been achieved. based its developers to give such data. Without any order of preference or publication time:
First of all, we have the “Sputnik Vaccine”, according to El Diario de León in its article How effective is the Russian Sputnik V vaccine against COVID? It specifies that: “90% Efficacy in its third phase of trials data have been carried out by the Nikolai Gamaleya National
Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology, the main body that has developed the drug and which reports to the Russian Ministry of Health. The Center has explained that the trials have evaluated the efficacy of Sputnik among “more than 16,000 volunteers” who received the vaccine and placebo 21 days after the first injection.
We continue with the vaccine from the pharmaceutical company Pfizer, which in conjunction with Biontech announced this Monday that its vaccine against Covid-19 is “90% effective.”
This has been pronounced after knowing the results of the first interim analysis of its phase 3 trial, the last one before a request for approval. “(…) The tests of the mRNA-based vaccine candidate, BNT162b2 against SARS-COV-2 have been carried out on a total of 43,538 participants and the analysis has evaluated 94 confirmed cases of Covid-19 in trial participants.” Information that we have compiled from the ABC newspaper in its article “Pfizer announces that its vaccine against Covid-19 is “90% effective”.
On the other hand, we also have the American pharmaceutical Moderna, which of all those announced so far is the one that has given the highest percentage of efficacy with 94.5%, according to the data provided by its clinical trial. “Moderna’s interim analysis was based on 95 infections among trial participants, who received either a placebo or the vaccine. There were only five infections among those who received the vaccine, which is administered in two injections 28 days apart” specified the newspaper El Mundo in its article “Moderna affirms that its vaccine against Covid is almost 95% effective and that It could arrive in Spain at the beginning of 2021”.
A little over a month ago, our friends at Medical Writing were talking about the results obtained by Sinopharm and the Beijing Institute of Biological Products, which were published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, stating that the vaccine “is” safe and well tolerated at all doses tested. The importance of this study is that its safety and tolerance are demonstrated in individuals between 18 and 80 years of age. In addition, humoral responses against SARS-CoV-2 were verified on day 42 of the study.”
Finally, we have Sanofi, who claims to have had very positive results in his study, as explained by the Digital Economy web portal in its article “Sanofi’s second coronavirus vaccine will be tested in humans after its success in animals”, it is estimated that “The clinical trial will begin the third and final phase in December with more than 30,000 volunteers. So far it has given the injection to 440 healthy patients divided into two age groups: 18 to 49 and over 50.”
Undoubtedly, these data bring with them a high hope for the population, to return to “normality”; however, it is noteworthy that until any of the above are massively distributed in the population, we must continue with the security measures as up to now. Social distancing, continuous hygiene of hands and objects, as well as diagnostic tests (which we already have in this post about the different detection tests for Covid-19), are the only defense mechanism we have in the face of this pandemic.
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